1. The LoC as International Border
Pakistan disputes the Indian claim and wants Muslim-majority Kashmir to be a part of Pakistan. Officially the Indian government is committed to taking back PoK, but experts say the conversion of the Line of Control into an international border is a realistic possible solution to the Kashmir dispute).
2. The Trifurcation of J&K
The idea of dividing Jammu and Kashmir state -- as pro-Pak Hurriyat leader and its former chairman S.A.S. Geelani proposed and then quickly denied -- draws from the infamous Dixon Plan. It was suggested in the 1960s by an American senator who proposed an independent Muslim state be carved out from the areas under the control of India and Pakistan. That proposed state should, according the proponents of this plan (mostly Western think tanks), include the Kashmir Valley, Rajouri and Poonch and Muslim-majority parts of Udhampur and Doda districts of the Jammu region.
Could Kashmir Become Three States?
3. Go Back to the Days Before 1953
The autonomy report submitted to the Centre in January 2000 by Farooq Abdullah's government demands restoration of the pre-1953 status of autonomy. That includes reviving the nomenclature of sadr-e-riyasat (for governor) and Prime Minister (for chief minister). The report also makes a case for devolution of powers to three distinct religion-based regions: Muslim-majority Kashmir, Hindu-dominated Jammu and Buddhist Ladakh. In May 2000, the government set up a high-powered committee of secretaries to comprehensively examine the autonomy report.
The JKLF (Amanullah Khan) Solution
Jammu and Kashmir be made an independent country for 15 years with a democratic, federal and secular system of government. Both India and Pakistan not to violate the borders of Kashmir during this period and its land not to be used by any of the countries for their own purpose. After 15 years a referendum to be held in Kashmir under the direct supervision of the UN and the people of the independent state will decide whether to stay independent or become part of India or Pakistan.
Five phase formula to be implemented by a 11 member International Kashmir Committee (IKC)
International Kashmir Committee (IKC): The 11 member International Kashmir Council to be formed by UN Secretary General comprising one representative each of the UN, P-5 countries, Germany, Japan, Islamic Conference (OIC) and two of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM). These members to implement the formula in five phases with the help of the Governments of India and Pakistan.
First Phase: The IKC will chalk out details of the formula, sign an agreement with India, Pakistan and Kashmiri parties and register it with the UN.
Second Phase: Withdrawal of security forces from Jammu and Kashmir by both India and Pakistan. Foreign mercenaries operating in Valley be evacuated and send back to respective countries.
Third Phase: Disarming of all Kashmiri militant groups, including counter-militancy groups raised by India. Facilitate return of all Kashmiri migrants from Jammu, India and Azad Kashmir to their homes in Valley.
Fourth Phase: The IKC will open all intra-Kashmir roads closed since ceasefire in 1949 and reunite the State. An interim government, representing all regions, religions and political parties, will be established to assist the IKC. A draft Constitution will be framed providing democratic federal state having five provinces--Kashmir Valley, Jammu, Ladakah, Azad Kashmir, Gilgit-Baltistan with equal representation in the upper House at the Centre while in the lower House depending upon the population.
Fifth Phase: After 15 years there will be a referendum under the supervision of the UN where people of the State will decide whether to remain Independent or align with India or merge with Pakistan.
The Andorra Solution
It's taken a joint effort of the intelligence agencies from India and the United States and two prominent Kashmiri businessmen based in US, who brought the Hizbul Mujahideen to the negotiating table. The same band of moderators have been advocating for a model in Kashmir like the one existing in Andorra.
Andorra, like Kashmir, is a small princely state situated on the border of Spain and France. Like Kashmir, Andorra was claimed by both Spain and France as co-principality since 803 AD. Only in 1993 the two countries reached an agreement and gave Andorra an independent constitution, thus reducing their dominance over the small state.
How to replicate the Andorra model in Kashmir:
- India and Pakistan declare the Line of Control as International border.
- Formally incorporate parts other than the Kashmir Valley into their countries.
- Jointly guarantee autonomy, bordering on independence, for the Kashmir valley.
Published in TheNewsPaperToday. I wish terrorism in Kashmir end through peaceful negotiations.